( A ) qRT-PCR analysis…, Lignin accumulation is associated with BPH resistance in rice. Furthermore, we show that expression of OsPAL6 and OsPAL8 in response to BPH attack is directly up-regulated by OsMYB30, an R2R3 MYB transcription factor.  |  Although the insect is endemic in the tropics where 1976; Tsuneda and Skoropad 1978, 1980), which forms coils and appressoria and sometimes penetrates the host hyphae. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the development, wing dimorphism and sex difference in this species. Development of novel control strategies can be facilitated by comparison of BPH feeding behaviour on varieties … Economic injury to plants involving cicadas, which occurs rarely, is mainly due to oviposition, although some species occasionally inflict feeding damage (e.g., on sugarcane). All the BPH-resistance genes identified to date have been from indica rice or wild species. BPH mainly sucks rice phloem sap and transmits plant viruses, i.e., the rice … What does BPH stand for? Till to date, 38 BPH resistance loci have been mapped from cultivated and wild species of rice. imidacloprid) is the chief way to control BPH, which is costly and hazardous to health and environment. The brown planthopper (BPH) is a rice-specific herbi-vore, which causes severe yield losses each year in rice planting areas throughout Asia (Cheng et al. Jian Feng Ma, Eiichi Takahashi, in Soil, Fertilizer, and Plant Silicon Research in Japan, 2002. A few examples have been cited to illustrate the above mechanism. Phloem-limited viral and mycoplasmalike pathogens typically multiply within the vector and enter the plant when the insect injects saliva during feeding. Christopher H. Dietrich, in Encyclopedia of Insects (Second Edition), 2009. Scientific name Two species of planthopper infest rice. … The use of Auchenorrhyncha in biocontrol of weeds has also begun to be explored. Epub 2010 Nov 1. Abstract Among the planthoppers of rice, the brown planthopper (BPH) is a major threat to rice production and causes significant yield loss annually. (1985) indicated for the first time that the trait for non-waxiness was controlled by a recessive gene. High population of planthoppers cause leaves to initially turn orange-yellow before becoming brown and dry and this is a condition called hopperburn that kills the plant. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Of all these QTLs, none was detected at more than one site, indicating a high level of QTL by environment interaction for all loci and rendering it impractical to use any of them in MAB. We found that the expression of the rice DELLA gene OsSLR1 was down‐regulated by an infestation of female adults of the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens. In rice, progress has been made with the introgression of major genes for improving tolerance of bacterial leaf blight, brown spot, brown planthopper, and for several other traits. The variety ‘Mudgo’, for example, showed near-complete immunity to the brown planthopper, with 100% nymphal mortality after 10 days (Pathak, 1969). Host-plant resistance is the most desirable and economic strategy in the management of BPH. 1. Noble and Suneson (1943) reported from the crosses of resistant variety Dawson and two susceptible varieties Poso and Bigclub, that Dawson had the dominant duplicate gene for resistance. The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is the most destructive rice insect pest. Population dynamics of the brown planthopper (BPH) in the Mekong Delta. The Brown Planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) has become a number one threat to tropical rice production in many parts of Asia in the last three decades (Dale, 1994). The brown planthopper resistance gene Bph-14 was recently cloned and found to encode a protein with a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain similar to those encoded by some pathogen resistance genes (Du et al., 2009). The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the major pests of rice. BMC Genomics. Epub 2009 Dec 14. Adults and young suck the plant sap from leaf sheathes, causing yellowing of lower and then upper leaves. Introduction. When the stem was extracted with water, the number of larvae that moved to the extract from the stem was smaller in the stem containing a higher Si. is a pest of rice in Asia; damage is caused by direct feeding and by the transmission of rice ragged stunt and rice grassy stunt diseases. 2010 Dec 3;9(12):6774-85. doi: 10.1021/pr100970q. The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a planthopper species that feeds on rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Anamorphic Ascomycota also host necrotrophic parasites. Brown planthopper (BPH) causes the most serious damage of the rice crop globally among all rice pests. 2013 May;6(3):621-34. doi: 10.1093/mp/sst030. In exclusion cage experiments, cages were initially cleaned of all arthropods. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, (BPH), which is raging throughout rice growing areas of Asia, is a stubborn rice in­ sect of primary importance also in the south­ ern half of Japan. Wang et al. Background. However, living organisms are finely tuned systems; a chemical does not have to be lethal to threaten the fitness (physical as well as reproductive) of the animal, with unpredictable results on the structure of the biological community (Culin and Yeargan, 1983; Volkmar and Schützel, 1997; Volkmar and Schier, 2005). Briggs and Knowles (1967) mentioned that resistance studies usually require the following: Pure lines of the host to serve as resistant and susceptible parents of crosses, A uniform and ideal environment of the pathogen or insect, such that resistance and susceptibility are clearly differentiated, A suitable method of inoculation or infestation so that the disease or insect has an equal opportunity for development on all materials of the study, A consistent system of classification preferably similar to that used by others conducting similar studies, Provision to grow self progenies of a cross through F3 since F3 families give the best measure of the F2 genotype. After 24 h, some cages were opened at bottom-most to allow predators in but keeping in the brown planthoppers. Brown planthop-per is a rice-specific herbivore and sucks the phloem sap of rice plants … Outbreaks of brown planthopper have occurred throughout the history of rice cultivation, but outbreaks became more frequent and more intense after the introduction of improved rice varieties and input-intensive farming practices during the green revolution of the 1960s. Since several genes/QTLs have been cloned for yield component traits, priority should be given to the pyramiding of yield component QTLs for enhancing yield potential in inbreds, as well as in hybrids. This is consistent with what is known about major gene resistance in plant–pathogen interactions, in which resistance genes function in the recognition of pathogen attack and activation of resistance-related gene expression. Brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice in Asia-Pacific region, often causing hopper burn and severe yield loss due to its monophagy and migration ability (Normile 2008).Presently, spraying insecticides (e.g. The insect can complete as many as 12 generations in a single year in tropical areas, where it resides year-round, and fewer generations in temperate areas, where it is a migratory pest. The Department of Agricultural Extension revealed that during this hot and dry season Rice growers in the central and northern regions observed the period of BPH (Brown planthopper) pest attack on their field. 2009 Dec 29;106(52):22163-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0912139106. Brown planthopper (BPH) is one of the most destructive insects affecting rice (Oryza sativa L.) production.Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a key enzyme involved in plant defense against … The development of hybrid rice is a practical approach for increasing rice production. Brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice in Asia-Pacific region, often causing hopper burn and severe yield loss due to its monophagy and migration ability (Normile 2008).Presently, spraying insecticides (e.g. Pairs of, Bostanian et al., 1984; Volkmar, 1989; Volkmar and Wetzel, 1992, Culin and Yeargan, 1983; Volkmar and Schützel, 1997; Volkmar and Schier, 2005, Vollrath et al., 1990; Volkmar et al., 1998, 2002, 2004, Mechanisms regulating phenotypic plasticity in wing polyphenic insects, Abigail M. Hayes, ... Laura Corley Lavine, in. Be careful of the outbreak of Brown planthopper (BPH) due to drought. R. Serraj, ... R.J. Hijmans, in Advances in Agronomy, 2009. 1991). What are the genes for phenotypic plasticity and are they conserved? Breeding of resistant cultivars is the most cost-effective and environment-friendly strategy for BPH management; however, resistant cultivars are currently hampered by the rapid breakdown of BPH … Identification and pyramiding BPH-resistance genes is an economical and effective solution to increase the resistance level of rice varieties. Twenty-one major genes for BPH resistance have been identified by Du B, Zhang W, Liu B, Hu J, Wei Z, Shi Z, He R, Zhu L, Chen R, Han B, He G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (1991) recorded both additive and non-additive gene effects controlling the inheritance of resistance. Emphasis should be given to the pyramiding of genes/QTLs with different mechanisms for resistance to/tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens(Stål) is one of the most serious insect pests of rice in Asia. Annual losses to maize, rice, and sugarcane attributed to pathogens spread by leafhoppers and planthoppers are estimated in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Advances in molecular marker technologies, genomics, and transformation have opened new ways to develop designer crops with well-defined genes and QTLs for target traits. Introduction. Mol Plant. A wide range of genetic systems from monogenic to polygenic control exists in different situations. Among the most important are the, Target Receptors in the Control of Insect Pests: Part I, Karunker et al., 2009; Puinean et al., 2010, Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Number of the larvae bored into the rice stems. The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) is a serious pest of rice in Asia. Large chromosomal segments corresponding to QTLs associated with root length in a population derived from a cross between the deep-rooted upland variety Azucena and the shallow-rooted lowland variety IR64 were introgressed into the IR64 background. Identification of heterotic patterns: Genome-based selection is emphasized for the identification of heterotic patterns and to enhance heterosis. Whole areas can die in patches which are said to be affected by “hopper burn”. The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), one of the most devastating insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa L.), occurs widely in South, Southeast, and East Asia, as well as in the South Pacific islands and Australia. It is alarming that a sharp increase in the … The newly developed cultivars having the Sub1 QTL have more than 97% of the genome from the recurrent varieties (Swarna, Sambha Mahsuri, BR11), except for the Sub1 region on chromosome 9, and provide enhanced submergence tolerance for up to 14 days to these varieties (Septiningsih et al., 2009). ( A ) Histochemical…, OsMYB30 binds to the AC-like elements in the promoters of OsPAL6 and OsPAL8…, NLM Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is a major insect pest of rice plants in Asian countries. Altered expression of PALs significantly…, Altered expression of PALs significantly impacts BPH resistance. Knockdown of OsPALs significantly reduces BPH resistance, whereas overexpression of OsPAL8 in a susceptible rice cultivar significantly enhances its BPH resistance. Passalora personata also can be parasitized by Cladosporiella cercosporicola (Esquivel-R. 1984). Recent evidence indicates that the differential resistance of rice varieties possessing and lacking bph genes is attributable primarily to differential responses of resistant and susceptible varieties to planthopper feeding. Raising yield potential: Integrating genomic tools, physiological traits, and diverse germplasm is emphasized for increasing rice productivity. The Si content of the rice stem was negatively correlated with the number of larvae bored into the stem and the amount of feces (Table 7.62). This yeast also acts similarly against Rhizopus stolonifer, Botrytis cinerea, and Alternaria alternata on tomatoes and grapes. Aspergillus luchuensis and a diversity of other fungi are parasitized in India by Fusarium udum (Upadhyay et al. The first brown planthopper-resistant rice variety, ‘IR26’, which contained the resistance gene bph-1, was released by the IRRI in 1973 and was widely adopted by growers throughout Asia. Therefore, breeding hybrid rice resistant to BPH is the most effective and economical strategy to maintain high and stable production. Species of Cercopidae are the most significant pests of forage grasses in pastures in Latin America and are also destructive of sugarcane. 1986, 1987). Introduction. The authors declare no competing interest. This simple experiment is one of the most effective ways of showing that predators are important in keeping brown planthopper populations low. A fourth recessive gene h4 was also identified in the variety Java in Californian tests (Suneson and Noble, 1950). The brown planthopper is a sucking insect that, under heavy infestations, can cause the wilting and complete drying of rice plants, a condition known as ‘hopperburn’ (Bottrell and Schoenly, 2012). 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