By the 18th century, Spain produced as much silver as the rest of the world combined . They built fortress missions across New Spain .Nine million were baptized by 1537. Cortes granted his soldiers encomiendas ( land grants )which granted an entire town and its Indian population to an encomendero  as the treasure hoped for after the conquest of the Aztecs did not amount to much as much of it had been lost in the retreat of Noche Triste . This was the open chapel or capilla abierta, which were covered over in time to create religious complexes such as the one at Cuilapan. The Spanish presence in Mexico was concentrated in Mexico City . There were long periods of delay in communication with Spain, and the viceroys and when orders seemed contrary to what was needed, the viceroy sometimes noted ' Obedezo pero no complo ' ( I obey but do not execute ). it was colonized in 1842 and Franklin Joseph Anderson colonized it. New Spain was exploited for the benefit of Spain with little reinvestment . The Spanish population grew during that time. The country was extremely over regulated and taxed . The reforms made New Mexico the most prosperous of all Spain's colonies and made Spain wealthy . During colonial times, missionary friars often came into conflict with secular authority and vigorously objected to the treatment of the native population, thus earning the respect of indigenous peoples who in turn were converted to Catholicism. The effective occupation of northern Mexico occurred later in the century and involved prolonged fighting with nomadic Indians. There were 62 viceroys in New Spain, eventually. For example, a ranchero needed a permit to slaughter a cow for his own consumption . Mexico is a large country that was reborn as a result of the European colonization of the Americas. Jews were forced to convert or leave and Protestants were forbidden in the Spanish realm . The Creole Count Regla was the wealthiest man in Spain from his silver mines . Angered by the injustice and mistreatment of the Indians and corruption, he preached sermons condemning the judges at risk to his life. One of the most important aspects of the colonial period was the introduction of Roman Catholicism. I should also point out that France totally did try to colonize those areas: once in 1808 with the Napoleonic invasion of Spain and again 1861 with French intervention in Mexico! The British took over the colony in 1795, returned it during the Peace of Amiens in 1802, and then re-occupied it in 1809. In 1562 the Crown bought the fortress. Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) began. In the process, Indians started to write Nahuatl in the Roman alphabet rather than in pictographs. At that time the local Mexicans revolted against Spanish rule. Products for local consumption were permitted to be produced. A pulqueria is where you go and indulge. They organized their colonies in Mexico, and … The building material in New Spain was more colorful, the red tezontle pumice and polychrome tiles from Puebla became widely used . The encomienda system attracted settlers and brought misery and death to many native people as it had in Cuba. He paid for the conquistadors wives to come to Mexico from Spain and encouraged his men to marry native women, beginning the first mestizos, children of Spanish and native Mexican blood . One of the most famous was by Bernardino de Sahagun, who compiled an encyclopedia of Aztec life, the Florentine Codex. What was essential a social caste system and enforced by law . The new territories extended through most of Central America and much of the south and west of what is now the United States. The Inquisition was used in Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella to insure religious unity after expelling the Moslems . This country sponsored Columbus' 1492 voyage, colonized most of Central and South America, and fought a brief and unsuccessful war against the United States in 1898. The Age of Exploration represents the beginning of the establishment of Western European control in what is now considered North and South America. The Spanish influence on American culture goes far beyond what many might think. Across colonial Mexico twelve thousand churches were built and today almost ninety percent of Mexico's population is Roman Catholic. The main products were silver, sugar, cacao, hides and fine woods. Pulque has about the same alcohol content as beer . Jeff Corwin takes his Extreme Cuisine down to Oaxaca for a demonstration of how to harvest the larvae of wood beetles, (called chiricoco), an important source of protein for the indigenous families. First populated more than 13,000 years ago, central and southern Mexico, (termed Mesoamerica), saw the rise and fall of complex indigenous civilizations. Such conditions led to rebellions and became hard to obtain laborer . Don Antonio de Mendoza, count of Tendilla, accepted the appointment as viceroy after three others had declined and arrived in Mexico in 1535. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Council of the Indies, Viceroy and Audiencia. Alonso and others were soon arrested and beheaded, and Don Martin was forced to go into exile .This ended independence talk at the time and also ended the new law on the encomienda. The Colonial Era The following 300 years mark the Colonial era, when the territories of New Spain were expanded under the control of local viceroys, named by the Spanish crown. They greatly impressed the Indians by walking from Vera Cruz to Mexico City barefoot in their simple friar  clothing .They were not seeking a Cibola and riches in gold. The written history of Mexico spans more than three millennia. June 1520 In fact, in 1499 the territory was discovered by his companion Alonso de Ojeda, who arrived there from nearby Santo Domingo, landing at Cabo de la Vela. The attacks of the northern European powers on New Spain became an increasing problem . Under the Spanish administration, the indigenous population did not fare well. Defeats Aztecs The king and the Council of the Indies decided New Spain needed a ruler to offset the popularity of Cortes and project the authority of the Crown , a viceroy . Colonization and Independence. She wrote poetry, some of it in the Nahuatl language, wrote plays and essays and was an exponent of women's rights .Another outstanding literary figure was Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora ( 1645 - 1700 ) . The encomenderos were supposed to convert the Indians and look after their welfare .Spanish encomenderos were usually absentee landlords who lived in faraway cities .Charles V, wanting to protect his new vassals, outlawed encomiendas , but the grants had already been distributed by Cortes . Mestizo, persons with one peninsular parent and one indio parent. Permission was need to publish from the viceroy and the bishop . Retreat(NocheTriste) the reforms benefited  the peninsulares at the expense of the creoles .The new  intendents were all from Spain replacing the creoles who usually held the old corregidore positions before . The crown had a monopoly on pulque, which was a major source of revenue .The Spanish discovered that by roasting the hearts of the agave plant and fermenting the liquid they could produce tequila . Spanish Colonization In Mexico. Commerce was controlled by royal decree. Provincial administrators were called Corregidores and reported to the viceroy . The Crown also appointed able viceroys during this period . Over the years, the number of African slaves diminished over the years from 20,000 in the 16th century to 6,000 by 1800. The salary for these positions was low and it was expected supplement their income by some sort of abuse of power .Provincial towns were organized by royal decree, all were to have a main plaza, church , royal palace and town hall with streets laid out in a grid pattern .Large cities such as Oaxaca, Puebla and Guadalajara were large enough to have cathedrals and grand palaces . It was used with greater frequency in the 18th century to prosecute those involved in political  dissent . Vaqueros  (cowboys ) on haciendas with their silver spurs and wide-brimmed  sombreros  to protect themselves from the sun grew up to supply the mining towns in the north and export hides to Spain . The Bourbon kings, wary of the papal links and coveting the wealth of the Jesuit's had them expelled in 1767 .In 1804 the crown decreed the Act of Consolidation in which the church's funds for charitable works were taken by the state . .One of the most famous literary stars of the colonial period was a woman, Sor (Sister ) Juana de la Cruz ( 1651 - 1695 ). Wine was introduced early to New Spain , but wine production was controlled in New Mexico as to not compete with Spanish wineries . When he returned, he had the enemies hanged, but the Crown remained suspicious and Cortes, hoping to clear his name went to Spain . Cochineal production also increased, becoming the second biggest export . By 1810, New Spain produced 75 percent of all the profit from Spain's colonies .Yet little was reinvested in New Spain . The colonial period lasted until the revolt of 1810 which was led by a priest, Miguel Hidalgo, known today as the father of Mexico's independence. The viceroys or vice-kings, created an elegant court which became the center of European society in New Spain . The Indians, wishing to get rid of the gold fevered Spanish quickly, always told the Spanish the gold cities were further on .Eventually, Coronado  went as far north as Kansas before returning to Mexico empty handed . The Spanish capitalized on the colony's natural resources and developed trade based on agricultural products, textiles, and on mining, particularly silver. In 1521, Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs and Mexico became a Spanish colony. Charles V was dead, and the new Spanish king, Phillip II ( r 1556 - 1598 ) was more interested in exploiting New Spain's economic wealth than saving souls .The universities for Indian nobles were disbanded . In 1529 Nuno de Guzman became one of three judges in Mexico City which led to one of the lowest points of Spanish administration in Mexico .This period between the rule of Cortes and the viceroys  was a time of corruption, graft and injustice as Guzman and the other oidores sought to enrich themselves and gain power . So, a system of forced labor was enacted called a repartimiento or cuatequil . In 1527, Spain set up the first audiencia, a high court with government functions so court cases would not have to be referred to Spain .Judges (oidores ) of the audiencia were some of the most powerful men in the Indies. Castillo de Chapultepec, built in 1785 as a viceroyal residence and site of the boy heroes of the Mexican war . Uniquely in the Western Hemisphere, Mesoamerican civilizations developed glyphic writing systems, recording the political history of conquests and rulers. Cortes did not have a noble lineage to be chosen as viceroy . It lowered taxes and promoted silver mining .Silver production rose from 2.2 million pesos in 1700 to 27 million by 1804. The silver bullion was sent to Spain in galleons was enough to pay for administrating all of the American colonies with a surplus .The China trade was established in 1564 silks, ceramics, tea and spices arrived from the Philippines at Acapulco and were transported across Mexico to Vera Cruz and sent to Spain with silver . This meant a terrific labor shortage, which was rectified through the importation of 200,000 or more African slaves. Before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth rock, Mexico City was a piece of Europe in the New world with cathedrals, plazas, hospitals and universities . Charles II ( 1661 - 1700 ), feeble in mind and body, the centuries of inbreeding within the Hapsburg dynasty  was the last of the Spanish Hapsburg kings. Modern View. However,  rising prices for silver enabled mine owners to pay more for labor which solved the labor problem . 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